Monday, May 25, 2020

Laws Regulating Federal Lobbyists

Federal lobbyists attempt to influence the actions, policies, or decisions of government officials, usually members of Congress or heads of Cabinet-level federal regulatory agencies. Lobbyists may include individuals, associations and organized groups, corporations, and other government officials. Some lobbyists represent a legislators constituencies, meaning a voter or bloc of voters within their electoral district. Lobbyists may volunteer or be paid for their efforts. Professional lobbyists—by far the most controversial lobbyists—are hired by businesses or special interest groups to influence legislation or federal regulations affecting those businesses or groups. In public opinion polls, lobbyists rank somewhere between pond scum and nuclear waste. In every election, politicians vow never to be â€Å"bought out† by lobbyists, but often do. Briefly, lobbyists get paid by businesses or special interest groups to win the votes and support of members of the U.S. Congress and state legislatures.   Indeed, to many people, lobbyists and what they do represent the main cause of corruption in federal government. But while lobbyists and their influence in Congress sometimes seem to be out of control, they really do have to follow laws. In fact, lots of them.   Background: The Laws of Lobbying While each state legislature has created its own set of laws regulating lobbyists, there are two specific federal laws regulating the actions of lobbyists targeting the U.S. Congress.   Recognizing the need to make the lobbying process more transparent and accountable to the American people, Congress enacted the Lobbying Disclosure Act (LDA) of 1995. Under this law, all lobbyists dealing with the U.S. Congress are required to register with both the Clerk of the House of Representatives and the Secretary of the Senate. Within 45 days of becoming employed or retained to lobby on behalf of a new client, the lobbyist must register his or her agreement with that client with the Secretary of the Senate and the Clerk of the House. As of 2015, more than 16,000 federal lobbyists were registered under the LDA. However, merely registering with Congress was not enough to prevent some lobbyists from abusing the system to the point of triggering total disgust for their profession. Jack Abramoff Lobbying Scandal Spurred New, Tougher Law Public hatred for lobbyists and lobbying reached its peak in 2006 when Jack Abramoff, working as a lobbyist for the rapidly growing Indian casino industry, pleaded guilty to charges of bribing members of Congress, some of whom also ended up in prison as a result of the scandal. In the aftermath of the Abramoff scandal, Congress in 2007 passed the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act (HLOGA) fundamentally changing the ways in which lobbyists were allowed to interact with members of Congress. As a result of HLOGA, lobbyists are prohibited from â€Å"treating† Congress members or their staff to things like meals, travel, or entertainment events. Under HLOGA, lobbyists must file Lobbying Disclosure (LD) reports during each year revealing all contributions they made to campaign events for members of Congress or other expenditures of efforts they make that might in any way personally benefit a member of Congress. Specifically, the required reports are: The LD-2 report showing all lobbying activities for each organization they are registered to represent must be filed quarterly; andThe LD-203 report disclosing certain political â€Å"contributions† to politicians must be filed twice a year. What Can Lobbyists ‘Contribute’ to Politicians? Lobbyists are allowed to contribute money to federal politicians under the same campaign contribution limits placed on individuals. During the current (2016) federal election cycle, lobbyists cannot give more than $2,700 to any candidate and $5,000 to any Political Action Committees (PAC) in each election. Of course, the most coveted â€Å"contributions† lobbyists make to politicians are the money and votes of the members of the industries and organizations they work for. In 2015 for example, the nearly 5 million members of the National Rifle Association gave a combined $3.6 million to federal politicians opposed to tighter gun control policy. In addition, lobbyist must file quarterly reports listing their clients, the fees they received from each client and the issues on which they lobbied for each client. Lobbyists who fail to comply with these laws face could face both civil and criminal penalties as determined by the Office of the U.S. Attorney. Penalties for Violation of the Lobbying Laws The Secretary of the Senate and the Clerk of the House, along with U.S. Attorney’s Office (USAO) are responsible for ensuring that lobbyists comply with the LDA activity disclosure law. Should they detect a failure to comply, the Secretary of the Senate or the Clerk of the House notifies the lobbyist in writing. Should the lobbyist fail to provide an adequate response, the Secretary of the Senate or the Clerk of the House refers the case to the USAO. The USAO researches these referrals and sends additional noncompliance notices to the lobbyist, requesting that they file reports or terminate their registration. If USAO does not receive a response after 60 days, it decides whether to pursue a civil or criminal case against the lobbyist. A civil judgment could lead to penalties up to $200,000 for each violation, while a criminal conviction —usually pursued when a lobbyist’s noncompliance is found to be knowing and corrupt—could lead to a maximum of 5 years in prison. So yes, there are laws for lobbyists, but how many of those lobbyists are really doing the â€Å"right thing† by complying with the disclosure laws? GAO Reports on Lobbyists’ Compliance with the Law In an audit released on March 24, 2016, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) reported that during 2015, â€Å"most† registered federal lobbyists did file disclosure reports that included key data required by the Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1995 (LDA). According to the GAO’s audit, 88% of lobbyists properly filed initial LD-2 reports as required by the LDA. Of those properly filed reports, 93% included adequate documentation on income and expenses. About 85% of lobbyists properly filed their required year-end LD-203 reports disclosing campaign contributions. During 2015, federal lobbyists filed 45,565 LD-2 disclosure reports with $5,000 or more in lobbying activity, and 29,189 LD-203 reports of federal political campaign contributions. The GAO did find that, as in years past, some lobbyists continued to properly disclose payments for certain â€Å"covered positions,† as paid congressional internships or certain executive agency positions provided as part of the lobbyists’ â€Å"contributions† to lawmakers. GAO’s audit estimated that about 21% of all LD-2 reports filed by lobbyists in 2015 failed to disclose payments for at least one such covered position, despite the fact that most lobbyists told the GAO that they found the rules regarding reporting covered positions as being â€Å"very easy† or  Ã¢â‚¬Å"somewhat easy† to understand.

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Prostitution, The Act Of Prostitution - 1324 Words

Prostitution, the act of â€Å"providing or receiving sexual acts, between a prostitute and a client, in exchange for money or some other form of remuneration† (Hock 557). The idea of exchanging sex for valuables has been seen since the beginning of human society; the first reported data about prostitution was reported around 3000 B.C.E in one of the first known civilizations, Mesopotamia (Caraboi and Fierbinteanu 362). Also, prostitution is often referred to as â€Å"the world’s oldest profession.† Today, even though prostitution is illegal in most parts of the world, it is still prevalent worldwide with many different types of prostitutes and different ways to exchange sexual services for payment. An example of a type of prostitute is brothel workers; brothel workers work in â€Å"a house of prostitution,† a brothel, which are normally in areas where prostitution is not criminalized (Hock 560). Like prostitution, human trafficking has been around for thousands of years and is still present today. The United Nations on Drug and Crime (UNODC) is the international agency that handles issues about human trafficking and other organized crimes. The UNODC defines human trafficking â€Å"as the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, or fraud, or deception† (â€Å"What is Human Trafficking?†). The transatlantic slave trade is an example of human trafficking; slave traders transported millionsShow MoreRelatedProstitution And The Act Of Prostitution1401 Words   |  6 Pagesoldest profession,† also known as prostitution, is considered a grey area in morality (Thiroux). Prostitution is defined as selling oneself or one’s talents for base purpose (Agnes). Contrary to popular belief, there are plenty of arguments for prostitution and the act of prostitution becoming legal. Coinciding with popular belief, there are more arguments against the act of pros titution being legalized. While some consider the act of prostitution to be an immoral act others will consider it a victimlessRead MoreProstitution Is The Act Of Selling1409 Words   |  6 Pagesof a person for the purpose of arousing or gratifying the sexual desire of either person† (Prostitution Laws of Nevada, 2009). Prostitution is the act of selling the sex either personally (selling oneself) or with the use of an organization (ie a brothel where an owner rents rooms and prostitutes for a timed use based on an entry fee or a pimp selling another human for the sexual use of others). Prostitution is a hot topic that sparks controversy wherever it goes either by sparking moral indignationRead MoreProstitution Prevention And Prevention Act1560 Words   |  7 Pagesto Thailand’s weak government. The combination of widespread corruption among government officials and the lack of enforcement of laws concerning the Thai sex industry has lead to the prominence of human s ex trafficking. The 1996 Prostitution Prevention and Prevention Act was implemented to punish pimps, procurers, brothel owners and customers, however; this law and many others designed to protect victims of human sex trafficking are poorly enforced. (Gugic,2014365). This lack of enforcement allowsRead MoreChild Prostitution As An Illegal Act2029 Words   |  9 PagesAcross the world each day, there are hundreds of cases of children unwillingly partaking in prostitution. In 2002, research by Willis and Levy stated, Child Prostitution involves offering the sexual services of a child or inducing a child to perform sexual acts for any form of compensation, financial or otherwise. (Willis Levy 2002) Children who encounter such sexual activities under the age of eighteen are considered children, and is seen as illegal. Individuals who are older than eighteen areRead MoreProstitution Is The Act Of Sexual Services3065 Words   |  13 PagesAbstract Prostitution is the act of sexual relations for money in exchange for any other type of favor. Prostitution in America can be traced back to the 18th century during the American Revolution. It is estimated that prostitution brings in an annual revenue of $100 billion. Since its inception prostitution has been a problem due to the fact that it is possible to spread STD s or STI s through the process. Prostitution has proven to be a health risk not only to those who seek the services ofRead MoreExploring The Features Of Prostitution And Other Sex Acts3515 Words   |  15 Pagesrelated to human trafficking, as the physical and mental consequences of the victims unbalance communities and create chaos in the social layers. Specifically, prostitution considered the most exposed facet of sex trafficking (which also includes pornography, exotic dancing, stripping, live sex shows, mail-order brides, military prostitution, and sexual tourism), is often linked to criminal behavior, including petty crime and drug-related activities. Worldwide, the majority of victims are women andRead MoreProstitution Is The Act Of Trading Sex For Some Form Of Profit1954 Words   |  8 Pages Prostitution has been practiced for thousands of years. It is believed to be the world’s oldest profession. Its beginning in ancient Mesopotamia began a somewhat morally disturbing practice that has flourished in the shadows of every civilization through time (Fanni, 2014). Recently, governments have chosen to overlook the morality of this act by making it legal in various countries. America has begun to discuss the pros and cons of allowing such a commonly despised and misunderstood professionRead MoreProstitution is common lewdness for hire, the act or practice of a woman who permits a man who will800 Words   |  4 PagesProstitution is common lewdness for hire, the act or practice of a woman who permits a man who will pay her price to have sexual intercourse with her. It is a universal phenomenon with moral, social, cultural, psychological, medical, and other aspects. Although male prostitution is also found, that involving males exclusively is best considered as part of the general problem of HOMOSEXUALITY. History. Social attitudes toward prostitution have changed through the ages and go on changing. It is difficultRead MoreShould Prostitution Be Legalized?1555 Words   |  7 PagesLegalization of Prostitution Prostitutes are people of multiple backgrounds and of either gender who make the decision to participate in sex acts for profit in a business-like setting. I support the legalization of prostitution because I believe that legalized prostitution will be a benefit of society. Once legalized, prostitution can provide many benefits to the participants of the business. Prostitution can provide a benefit of the economy in most places, and provide safe business practices andRead MoreThe Current Status Of Prostitution Essay1638 Words   |  7 PagesResearch on Prostitution Phillip Walton CRIM/ECON 355 Dr. Richard Lotspeich November 14, 2016 Abstract This paper will examine the current status of prostitution as an illegal act and the market it generates; then show what effect legalizing prostitution would have on the prostitution market. Prostitution has a very large market that if legalized could be used as a source of revenue for governments through the form of taxes. So the focus will include how the prostitution market is generated, what

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

A Short Note On Tier E Health Monitoring System - 1070 Words

5. Two-Tier e-Health Monitoring System This paper proposes another structural engineering for e-Health cell phones eliminating so as to observe framework the outsider server in the framework. Distributed computing is proposed to be incorporated with the framework for effective information stockpiling and snappy access in patient records. This structural planning is intended to improve the security level of the e-Health observing framework and to ensure the classification of the patients information. By wiping out the outsider server in the information transmission process, we can keep the e-Health framework from potential vulnerabilities that can happen amid the information transmission from the patients to the specialists. E-Health cell phones observing framework can upgrade the nature of human services by coordinating the utilization of Internet correspondence with patient-specialist treatment. 6. An Approach of a Decision Support and Home Monitoring System for Patients with Neurological Disorders using Internet of Things Concepts The Internet of Things and data and CommunicationTechnologies connected being developed of medicinal services frameworks have achieved a developmental procedure. This paper presentsthe advancement of a coordinated astute framework for Parkinson s illness Screening.The Decision Support and Home Monitoring System aredesigned to help and bolster doctors in finding, home checking, restorative treatment, therapeutic solutions, recovery andShow MoreRelatedPerry Potter Ch 341362 Words   |  6 Pagesinternal mechanical transfers (i.e. flies, mosquitoes, fleas, ticks, parasites) e. portal of entry-organisms enter the body through the same routes used for exiting f. susceptible hosts-a degree of resistance to the pathogen; infection does not develop until individuals immune is weakend and/or dose increases THE INFECTIOUS PROCESS: Nurse is responsible for properly administered antibiotics, monitoring the response to drug therapy, and hygiene in standard precautions. Course of infectionRead MoreDistribution Dossier - Samsung India8112 Words   |  33 Pagesmonetary methods 9 Target setting mechanism 9 Monitoring Mechanisms 9 Training and HR inputs 10 FIELD FORCE MANAGEMENT 11 Monetary methods 11 Non Ââ€" monetary methods 11 Target setting mechanism 11 Monitoring Mechanisms 11 Training and HR inputs 11 TRANSPORT AND LOGISTICS 12 Imported Goods 12 Within the country 12 Modes of Transportation till Dealer 12 Modes of Transportation after Dealer 12 ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK 13 EVALUATING THE HEALTH OF CURRENT DISTRIBUTION 16 Effectiveness 16 EfficiencyRead MoreCorporate Social Responsibility : Supply Chain to Value Chain8966 Words   |  36 Pages387 From supply chains to value chains: A spotlight on CSR Malika Bhandarkar and Tarcisio Alvarez-Rivero* 1. Introduction Corporate social responsibility (CSR)1 has become a hot topic in boardrooms across the world. Changes in corporate value systems are being driven by pressures from different actors, including governments, consumers, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and institutional investors (diagram 1). Multinational corporations (MNCs) have operations spread across the globe, relyingRead MoreBackground Inditex, One of the Worlds Largest Fashion Distributors, Has Eight Major Sales Formats - Zara, Pull and Bear, Massimo Dutti, Bershka, Stradivarius, Oysho, Zara Home Y Kiddys Class- with 3.147 Stores in 70100262 Words   |  402 Pageseducational or other non-profit purposes and provided that the reprint contains a clear reference to the original material. Published in 2009 by IIIEE, Lund University, P.O. Box 196, S-221 00 LUND, Sweden, Tel: +46 – 46 222 02 00, Fax: +46 – 46 222 02 10, e-mail: Printed by KFS AB, Lund. ISSN 1402-3016 ISBN 978-91-88902-46-7 Acknowledgements They say that the process of completing a PhD is a journey. For me it has been a long and trice interrupted journey, and I would be lying ifRead MoreAbstract. This Research Study Focuses On The Use Of Internet5170 Words   |  21 Pagesbetter health facilities to patients. It also includes a brief description of the various ways in which the Internet can be used to increase medical facilities’ efficiency and effectiveness, in other word â€Å"better health facilities†. The potential disadvantages of introducing the Internet in medical services are likewise explained. This report shows various measures that can be taken to improve the quality of medical services by eliminating loopholes from the Internet of Things (IoT): the system of internetworkingRead MoreRdg/543 Dynamic Literacy Classroom Essay8655 Words   |  35 PagesThe data generated from this assessment shows the level of the expected understanding of covered reading standards. * Students are assessed through three different portions. The first part (RC) assesses reading comprehension through 2 or 3 short stories that are accompanied by comprehension questions. The second part (MAZE) assesses comprehension and fluency through a timed cloze reading. The third and final part (WA) assesses on vocabulary and spelling knowledge. Informal Assessment measuringRead MoreHrm Training and Development15736 Words   |  63 Pagesreveal that less costly interventions (e.g. selection, compensation package, job redesign) could be used in lieu of training. Needs assessment occurs at two levels-group and individual. An individual obviously needs when his or her performance falls short of standards, that is, when there is performance deficiency. Inadequacy in performance may be due to lack of skill or knowledge or any other problem. The problem of performance deficiency caused by absence of skills or knowledge can be remedied byRead MoreNarrative Report3644 Words   |  15 PagesLOUISE JANE S. CABRALES June 2013 BIOGRAPHICAL DATA Louise Jane S. Cabrales is the youngest daughter among the two children of Job and Myrna Cabrales. She was born on October 03, 1993 at Manila. She lives at Hershey St. Phase II-E, Camella Homes Bacoor Cavite. She took her elementary education in Juan Luna Elementary School at Sampaloc, Manila in year 2006, while her secondary in General Emilio Aguinaldo national High School in year 2010. She is presently studyingRead MoreAfghanistan Fiscal Policy9790 Words   |  40 Pagesmarket-sensitive information. To assist the IMF in evaluating the publication policy, reader comments are invited and may be sent by e-mail to Copies of this report are available to the public from International Monetary Fund ââ€"  Publication Services 700 19th Street, N.W. ââ€"  Washington, D.C. 20431 Telephone: (202) 623 7430 ââ€"  Telefax: (202) 623 7201 E-mail: ââ€"  Internet: Price: $18.00 a copy International Monetary Fund Washington, D.C. Read MoreSustainability7193 Words   |  29 Pagestechnology etc. Ecological economics includes the study of societal metabolism, the throughput of resources that enter and exit the economic system in relation to environmental quality. Sustainability is not a window dressing or peripheral programme that can be deferred or discarded in tough economic times. It is vital and robust strategy for tough times. Over the short term it offers quick, money saving fixes with significant return on investment. Over the long term, it cut costs and generates revenue

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

lesson learned Essay Example For Students

lesson learned Essay Lesson LearnedAs I was standing in front of the judge many emotions proceeded to give me a nudge, my heart sank and the tears rolled down my face as if I was trying to fill a river. I knew I was going to be jailed for the bad decision that I had made when I decided to get behind the wheel of my vehicle. After my sentencing I was escorted to the booking room where they proceeded to take my fingerprints, height, and my photo. After this procedure was finished I was lead down this long gloomy hallway where the noises was most frightful to me since I had never experienced anything like this. I could hear a jingle sound comingfrom the jailors keys that he was carrying, the rattle of the handcuffs that seemed to be tightening around my wrists, and the heavy door slamming behind me. The noises sent echoes off the concrete walls and shivers down my spine. This experience of being incarcerated seemed to me to be the most horrible, scariest, and loneliest place to be. I often remember how being incarcerated made me feel. I hope to never be in thathorrible place again. As I entered the cell there were four slabs of metal attached to theconcrete walls one of these slabs were my bed. On that bed was a thin green mattress that was only an inch thick maybe two and a pillow that showed no comfort at all. The one blanket that the jailor had given to me was not enough to keep me warm in a place so cold. The privacy I had was very little. The shower and toilet was located in the corner of the cell but they were not isolated enough to where the other inmates could not see me. I undressed and dressed inside the shower to have some privacy. I even tried to haveprivacy by hanging up a blanket from one corner of a wall stand to another but I got introuble by the jailor. All of these things just seemed so horrible and degrading to me. My first few nights being in the cell called J-1 was scary. There were three otherwoman in the cell that was always yelling or fighting over ridiculous things like the television. Around the corner I could hear the accused killer Cowboy Mike always singing the country songs that he liked so much or the banging of his coffee cup against the bars of the cell when he was angry. One time he even used the shower curtain rod to try to escape from his line cell. Even further down the line there was an accused rapist and of course he had to put his two cents in by always screaming that the devil was coming after him. All I could think is how scary this was and I wanted out. Not twodays from now nor thirty days I wanted out right then!I was separated from the outside unable to touch or hold the people that were so dear to me. It was a lonely feeling; I would hate to see anyone experience such loneliness. Even though we did have visits it was never the same as being on the other side. When my family did come to visit the jailor would escort me to the visiting room. It only consisted of an outside lawn chair, a glass window, and a phone. The visiting periodswere only fifteen minutes, which seemed like only two. Sitting behind the window was hard to cope with since the only time I could even get close to my family is when I put my hand on the glass where there hand would meet mine. Yes, just like in the movies. The most painful part was seeing how much I hurt my children and not being able to hold or take care for them like a parent is supposed to do. I will never allow this empty feelingto enter my life again or my families. .u61092f7b6255e13db9036f93aa90d9dc , .u61092f7b6255e13db9036f93aa90d9dc .postImageUrl , .u61092f7b6255e13db9036f93aa90d9dc .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u61092f7b6255e13db9036f93aa90d9dc , .u61092f7b6255e13db9036f93aa90d9dc:hover , .u61092f7b6255e13db9036f93aa90d9dc:visited , .u61092f7b6255e13db9036f93aa90d9dc:active { border:0!important; } .u61092f7b6255e13db9036f93aa90d9dc .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u61092f7b6255e13db9036f93aa90d9dc { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u61092f7b6255e13db9036f93aa90d9dc:active , .u61092f7b6255e13db9036f93aa90d9dc:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u61092f7b6255e13db9036f93aa90d9dc .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u61092f7b6255e13db9036f93aa90d9dc .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u61092f7b6255e13db9036f93aa90d9dc .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u61092f7b6255e13db9036f93aa90d9dc .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u61092f7b6255e13db9036f93aa90d9dc:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u61092f7b6255e13db9036f93aa90d9dc .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u61092f7b6255e13db9036f93aa90d9dc .u61092f7b6255e13db9036f93aa90d9dc-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u61092f7b6255e13db9036f93aa90d9dc:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Hall Essay Life is definitely an experience being incarcerated. I know now that I do not want to enter that cell called J-1 ever again because life is to important to feel horrible, scared, or lonely.

Friday, April 10, 2020

Macbeth Essays (137 words) - English-language Films,

Macbeth Lady MacBeth hated Duncan when he came to the land. She hated the fact that he stood a chance of being king over her husband which ment she stood a chance of not being queen. Knowing this, this made her very hateful towards him and she wanted him dead. If he was dead there would be no one else left to be king but MacBeth. #4 Letter Dear My Beloved Wife, Lately, I have been seeing and feeling things I can not explain. I have heard of the witches and their predictions for MacBeth anf the kingdom and I personally do not know what to do. The witched seem to think that MacBeth will never become king and that all his efforts are in vain, but the way things are looking he has a good chance of being king. What shall I do? Your Beloved Husband Shakespeare Essays

Monday, March 9, 2020

Postoperative Recovery Advantages in Patients Undergoing Thyroid and Parathyroid Surgery under Regional Anesthesia. by Suri. Article Review

Postoperative Recovery Advantages in Patients Undergoing Thyroid and Parathyroid Surgery under Regional Anesthesia. by Suri. Article Review This review seeks to examine the article by Suri et al (2010) titled â€Å"Postoperative Recovery Advantages in Patients Undergoing Thyroid and Parathyroid Surgery under Regional Anesthesia.† The purpose of this review is to investigate some of new insights that the article brings into the field of medical surgery. Additionally, the review examines the findings of the study and how it can help to improve or change the practice in health institutions, especially among medical professionals dealing with surgery. There are intriguing debated about the advantages of using regional anesthesia during minimal invasive parathyroidectom. In evaluating the extent to which general and regional anesthesia succeed as a method of conducting surgery, Suri et al (2010) assessed the post operative recovery advantages in these two techniques. Previous studies have established that carrying out parathyroidectomy under local or regional anesthesia using sedation has significant advantages, includ ing less postoperative nausea, pain, vomiting, and opiod analgesic requirements. Although these studies have found inextricable evidence suggesting the advantages of general anesthesia, recent studies indicate that it is possible to undergo these surgeries without inducement of general anesthesia.Advertising We will write a custom critical writing sample on â€Å"Postoperative Recovery Advantages in Patients Undergoing Thyroid and Parathyroid Surgery under Regional Anesthesia.† by Suri. Article Review specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Suri et al (2010) purposed to discover some of advantages of regional versus general anesthesia. From the research article, the researchers found that patients undergoing parathyroid surgery under superficial cervical plexus block are more advantageous compared to when undergoing general anesthetic procedures. The study brings on board new insights to the theory and practice of medical surgery. Th e study suggests that patients undergoing regional anesthetic procedures usually experience fast rate of recovery after parathyroid surgery. The study’s findings confirm the results of prior researches, which have found that patients undergoing the general anesthesia experience quick recovery and get back to normal life faster compared to the ones undergoing general anesthesia. While some studies have suggested that patients were satisfied with both general and regional anesthesia with sedation, Suri et al (2010) found that the pain reduction was eminent in procedures where patients undergoing parathyroid surgery under regional anesthesia. The article shows that they consulted other existing literatures, which have investigated the advantages of applying general and regional anesthesia procedures. This is seen from a number of referral studies, which undertook to examine various anesthetic procedures during surgery. The sound and precise background developed by the researches gives a formidable platform to understand the subject under review. Although it is arguable that the article used previous studies to ground its theory, a review of the article shows that the researchers did not give the study a wide scope of coverage. It is critical for a researcher to set off a study from an extensive an extensive background, which forms the momentum for the study. According to the study, Suri et al (2010) found no significant difference between the general and the regional anesthesia procedures in terms of some of postoperative advantages , including the timing of pain, narcotic pain medication, and incidence of nausea, voice hoarseness, vomiting, or swallowing problems.Advertising Looking for critical writing on health medicine? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The study reveals that although both anesthesia procedures involved in general and regional techniques had far-reaching postoperative ad vantages, the Suri et al (2010) found that patients undergoing bilateral superficial cervical plexus block recorded incidents of sharp pains. In conclusion, the research article by Suri et al (2010) utilized a relatively large sample that allows for generalization of the results. The confirmation of previous studies’ findings serves to show that the study remain in conformity with the research standards. Reference Suri, K. B., Hunter, C. W., Davidov, T., Anderson, M. B., Dombrovskiy, V., Trooskin, S. Z. (2010). Postoperative Recovery Advantages in Patients Undergoing Thyroid and Parathyroid Surgery under Regional Anesthesia. Seminars in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, 14(1).

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Research report Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Research report - Essay Example Prior to the split up, the entire central Asian region fell under administration of Moscow. Moscow’s administration had structured mechanisms meant to ensure equitable distribution of water and energy resources within the region (Murodbek 261). However, independence from Soviet Union ushered in unprecedented challenges to the nations under consideration. Main rivers supplying domestic and agricultural water to the five nations originate from mountain ranges within Tajikistan and the neighboring Kyrgyzstan, and then flows downstream through the other remaining three nations and finally drains into Aral Sea. From a rational perspective, the two nations within the upstream region should ensure undisrupted flow of water to nations lying on the downstream region. On the other hand, downstream nations are rich in oil and gas energy sources. This means that they will return the undisrupted water supply favor by pumping oil and gas to Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan (Murodbek 261). This pla n worked efficiently under the Soviet Union administration before secession of Central Asian sovereign territories. Despite the fact that this resource sharing strategy sounds simple and logical, current state of affairs between the nations involved does not conform to this strategy. Consequently, lack of conformance to equitable sharing of resources has led to technical hitches within economic, social and political relationships between nations in the entire region. As an illustrative example, generation of hydro-electric power by nations in the upstream region like Tajikistan as met vehement disapproval from downstream counterparts (Murodbek 263). At this juncture, this essay will develop a comprehensive analysis on causes and effects of the water-energy crisis. In addition, an extrapolation of the theme will examine existence of similar problems in other nations around the globe. Nations lying within the upstream section of Central Asia, especially Tajikistan engages in intensive agricultural activities as their main economic activities. In the recent past, necessity to expand the nation’s economic sector led to expansion of agriculture through irrigation. As a result, Tajikistan diverted large volumes of water from the two main rivers serving the region into the irrigated tracks of land. This increased supply of water to farms was not going to be seasonal. The huge tracks of land lie within an arid and semi-desert regions of the nation. This means that irrigation requires sustained amount of water supply to meet agricultural production demands. In this case, extensive irrigation of cotton and wheat farms remained as the central economic activity in the lower part of Tajikistan (Murodbek 263). In addition, other nations including Kazakhstan tapped river water in the middle of flowing channels conveyed them directly to their farms. In this regard, every nation tried to expand its agricultural sector by utilizing the only available water from the two m ain river channels. Consequently, this caused a pronounced shortage of total water flowing down stream. This means that economic and social activities of people living within the affected nations would experience difficulties (Murodbek 265). At this juncture, expansion of irrigation fed agriculture featured as one of the main cause in the water-energy crisis in Central Asian region. Apart from irrigation, energy generation through hydro-electricity played a significant role in causing the water-energy